Additional Sources

Brief Articles

Musa, Zakariya, “Why Sing in Worship? A Reflection from Nigeria,” August 19, 2014
Church of the Brethren Newsline

Sadoh, Godwin. “Celebrating the Cathedral Church of Christ Choir, Lagos, Nigeria, at Ninety.
The Diapason.” The Diapason, September 2, 2008.

———. “Thomas Ekundayo Phillips: Composer of Nigeria’s First Church Cantata.”
Vox Humana Journal, May 26, 2019.

Azubuike, Clara. “Sisters of St. Louis bring music to Nigeria,” July 15, 2020.
Global Sisters Report: A Project of National Catholic Reporter.

Keazor, Ed. “Gospel music in Nigeria,” July 7, 2015, Music in Africa


Nigerian Church Music in the News

Stuart, John. “Music academy develops talent, preserves Nigerian church music,” SIM International.

Oby, Ify. “The evolution of gospel music in Nigeria” The Native, September 2, 2020

“Chidinma tok why she dump secular music for gospel.” BBC News Pidgin, May 4, 2021.



Brennan, Vicki L. Singing Yoruba Christianity: Music, Media, and Morality. Indiana University Press, 2018.

Ojo, Matthews A. The End-Time Army: Charismatic Movements in Modern Nigeria. Africa World Press, 2006.

Sadoh, Godwin. Five Decades of Music Transmutation in Nigeria and The Diaspora., 2015.

———. The Organ Works of Fela Sowande: Cultural Perspectives. iUniverse, 2007.

———. Thomas Ekundayo Phillips: The Doyen of Nigerian Church Music. iUniverse, 2009.



Adedeji, Femi. “Aesthetics and Practices in Indigenous Choral Styles of the Yoruba of Africa.” In Centering on African Practice in Musical Arts Education, edited by Minette Mans, 3–16. African Minds, 2006.

Brennan, Vicki L. “Senwele Jesu: Gospel Music and Religious Publics in Nigeria.” In New Media and Religious Transformations in Africa, edited by Rosalind I. J. Hackett and Benjamin F. Soares, 227–244. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2015.

Shola, Adeola Taiye. “Intersections of Popular Culture and Nigerian Gospel Music.” In Culture and Development in Africa and the Diaspora, edited by Ahmad Shehu Abdussalam, Ibigbolade Simon Aderibigbe, Sola Timothy Babatunde, and Olutola Opeyemi Akindipe, 84–94. Abingdon; New York: Routledge, 2021.



Adedeji, Adewale. “Yoruba Culture and Its Influence on The Development of Modern Popular Music in Nigeria.” PhD diss., University of Sheffield, 2010.

Eniolawun, Olusola I. “The Development and Functions of Yoruba Church Music in the South-West of the Nigerian Baptist    Convention.” PhD diss., Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria, 2015.

Eniolawun, Olusola I. “Bolojo Music in Christian Worship: Prospects and Challenges for a Contemporary Baptist Church Musician.” MA thesis, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria, 2008.

Fasipe, Emmanuel Olusola. “A Study and Critical Analysis of Orin Idaraya Choruses in the Yoruba Baptist Hymnal (2000) of the Nigerian Baptist Convention.” PhD diss., The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2020.

Orakwe, Jude Toochukwu. “Joyful Noise and Violent Prayer: Music and Charismatic Worship Performance in Nigerian Catholic Communities in Rome, Italy.” PhD diss., Indiana University, 2015.

Oyemomilara, Cornelius Olusegun. “Towards a Contextualisation of Worship: A Challenge to the Nigerian Baptist Convention.” PhD diss., University of Manchester (UK), 2012.

Journal Articles

Nigerian Gospel Music

Adedeji, Femi. “Classification of Nigerian Gospel Music Styles.” Nigerian Music Review 5 (2004): 62–80.

———. “Instrumentation as a Stylistic Determinant in Nigerian Gospel Music.” Institute of African Studies Research Review 23, no. 2 (January 1, 2007): 43–59.

———. “Language Dynamics in Contemporary Nigerian Gospel Music.” Journal of the Association of Nigerian Musicologists 4 (2010): 95–116.

———. “Nigerian Gospel Music in a Globalized Context.” Journal of the Association of Nigerian Musicologists 3 (2009): 60–71.

———. “Pitch and Tonality in Contemporary African Music n Gospel Music as a Case Study.” Institute of African Studies Research Review 21, no. 2 (January 1, 2005): 1–10.

———. “Revolutionary Trends in Nigerian Contemporary Gospel Music.” Humanities Review Journal 1, no. 2 (2001): 46–53.

———. “Singing and Suffering in Africa A Study of Selected Relevant Texts of Nigerian Gospel Music.” Matatu 40, no. 1 (December 1, 2012): 411–425.

Adedeji, Femi, and Samson O. Olanisebe. “The Relevance of the Nigerian Gospel Music Today: A Theo-Musicological Analysis.” Asia  Journal of theology 24, no. 2 (2010): 254.

Adeola, Taiye Shola. “Gospeltainment: Music and Profit in Nigeria.” Utafiti 15, no. 1 (June 23, 2020): 81–100.

Adedeji, Femi, and Omolara Loko. “African Sensibility in the Training of Nigerian Gospel Musicians.” Journal of Nigerian Music Education (JONMED) 11, no. 1 (2020). Accessed May 17, 2021.

Aimiuwu, Emmanuel. “Proliferation of Emergent Gospel Music Artistes in Nigeria: Effects and Defects in a Distressed Economy.” Journal of Nigerian Music Education (JONMED) 10, no. 1 (May 15, 2019): 81–88.

Babarinde, Damilola Mayowa. “Hybridisation of Nigeria Christian Gospel Music: A Product of Multilateralism.” SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, March 8, 2021. Accessed May 13, 2021.

———. “Emergent Issues in the Hybridisation of Christian Gospel Music in South-West Nigeria.” Calabar Journal of Liberal Studies 21 (n.d.): 81–88.

Brennan, Vicki. “Senwele Jesu: Gospel Music and Religious Publics in Nigeria.” In New Media and Religious Transformations in Africa, edited by Rosalind I. J. Hackett and Benjamin F. Soares, 227–244. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2015.

Dada, Omolabake Adejoke, and Babatunji Oluseyi Dada. “Training of Gospel Musicians in South–West Nigeria.” The Performer 12, no. 7 (2010): 200–210.

Emielu, Austin, and Grace Takyi Donkor. “Highlife Music without Alcohol? Interrogating the Concept of Gospel Highlife in Ghana and Nigeria.” Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa 16, no. 1–2 (July 3, 2019): 29–44.

Endong, Floribert Patrick Calvain. “Wordliness and the Secularization of Contemporary Nigerian Gospel Music: Implications for Censorship and Consumption.” International Journal of Research in Sociology and Anthropology 3 (n.d.): 32–43.

———. “Religiosity versus Spirituality in the Contemporary Nigerian Gospel Music.” Human and Social Studies 5, no. 2 (2016): 116–132.

Endong, Floribert Patrick Calvain, and C. Patrick. “Glossolalia in the Nigerian Gospel Music: Aesthetic Feature or Archetype of a Pentecostal Identity?” IJAHS: International Journal of Art and Humanity Sciences 2, no. 2 (2015): 14–20.

Oikelome, A. O. “‘Pop Goes the Gospel’-The Growth of Gospel Music in Nigeria” (2010).

Ojo Matthews. “Indigenous Gospel Music and Social Reconstruction in Modern Nigeria.” Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies 26, no. 2 (August 1, 1998): 210–231.

Samuel, Kayode M. “The ‘Eye of the Needle’ Debate: Marking the Boundaries of Professionalism in Contemporary Nigerian Gospel Music.” Journal of the Association of Nigerian Musicologists 9 (2015): 26–43.



Adeboye, Olufunke. “‘A Church in a Cinema Hall? ’Pentecostal Appropriation of Public Space in Nigeria.” Journal of Religion in Africa 42, no. 2 (2012): 145–171.

Clement, Udok, Ekaette, and Odunuga Funmilayo Adeola. “Music and Pentecostalism: The Nigerian Experience.” Review of Arts and Humanities 5, no. 1 (2016). Accessed May 17, 2021.

Marshall-Fratani, Ruth. “Mediating the Global and Local in Nigerian Pentecostalism.” Journal of religion in Africa 28, no. 3 (1998): 278–315.


General Theme on Nigerian Christian Music

Adedeji, Femi. “Christian Music in Contemporary Africa: A Re-Examination of Its Essentials : Research Article.” Koers: Bulletin for Christian 1 (2007): 85–100.

———. “The Theology and Practice of Music Therapy among Nigerian Indigenous Churches: Christ Apostolic Church as a Case Study.” Asia journal of theology 22, no. 1 (2008).

Agu, Dan. “Music Plurality: Inevitability in Nigerian Music Scene.” AWKA Journal of Research in Music and Arts (AJRMA) 13, no. 1 (January 15, 2021). Accessed June 7, 2021.

Akpakpan, Johnson. “Toward Standardizing Indigenous Liturgical Music Compositions in Catholic Diocese of Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria.” Open Journal of Social Sciences 6, no. 5 (May 8, 2018): 57–68.

Akpanika, Ekpenyong Nyong. “Christianity in Africa: The Renewal of Indigenous Music: A Case Study of the Presbyterian Church of Nigeria.” American Journal of Social Issues & Humanities 2, no. 6 (2012): 406–411.

Brennan, Vicki. “Mediating ‘The Voice of the Spirit’: Musical and Religious Transformations in Nigeria’s Oil Boom.” American Ethnologist 37, no. 2 (2010): 354–370.

———. “‘Up Above the River Jordan’: Hymns and Historical Consciousness in the Cherubim and Seraphim Churches of Nigeria.” Studies in World Christianity 19, no. 1 (March 27, 2013): 31–49.

Endong, Floribert Patrick Calvain. “The Influence of Westernised and Hybridised Christianity on the Appreciation of Traditional Art in Nigeria.” American Journal of Art and Design 2, no. 2 (2017): 52–59.

Hackett, Rosalind I. J. “Charismatic/Pentecostal Appropriation of Media Technologies in Nigeria and Ghana.” Journal of religion in Africa 28, no. 3 (1998): 258–277.

Ibude, Isaac Osakpamwan. “African Art Music and the Drama of Christian Worship among Baptists in Nigeria.” East African Journal of Traditions, Culture and Religion 2, no. 1 (October 22, 2020): 72–82.

Iroanya, Alozie. “Gospel Music and Sustainability of Christian Ministry in the Third Millennium.” International Journal of Theology and Reformed Tradition 5 (2013): 160–177.

Odewole, Israel Oluwagbemiga. “The Use of Human Five Senses as Models to Enhanced Music in Worship in Abeokuta, Nigeria.” International Journal of Literature and Arts 8, no. 4 (2020): 177–184.

Osigwe, Chinedum N. “Contemporary Nigeria Church Music: A Search for True Identity and Cultural Relevance.” International Journal of Music and Performing Arts 4, no. 2 (2016): 65–71.

Paul, Adamu, and Hayab Fortune Josiah. “Code-Switching in Nigerian Christian Songs.” Issues in Language and Literary Studies 1, no. 3 (February 26, 2020). Accessed June 7, 2021.

Sadoh, Godwin. “Modern Nigerian Music: The Postcolonial Experience.” The Musical Times 150, no. 1908 (2009): 79–84.

———. “Thomas Ekundayo Phillips: Prelude to Early Twentieth-Century Hymnody in Nigeria.” The Hymn 70, no. 1 (Winter 2019): 11–18.

Samuel, Kayode M. “A Discourse of Contemporary Issues in Nigeria Church Music.” Ogbomoso Journal of Theology 11 (2006): 19–25.

———. “Church Music in Nigeria: A Historical Trend.” Abuja Journal of Philosophy and Religions 2 (2013): 32–45.


Igbo Church Music

Agu, Daniel CC. “Youth Songs: A Type of Igbo Choral Music in Igbo Christian Worship.” African Music: Journal of the International Library of African Music 7, no. 2 (1992): 13–22.

Anagwo, Emmanuel Chinedu. “Fostering the Use of Palm Fronds in Christian Worship: The Igbo-Nigerian Context.” JOS STUDIES 28 (July 8, 2020). Accessed June 7, 2021.

Ekwueme, Lazarus Nnanyelu. “African Music in Christian Liturgy: The Igbo Experiment.” African Music : Journal of the International Library of African Music 5, no. 3 (1973): 12–33.

Onyeji, Christian. “Abigbo Music and Musicians of Mbaise, Igbo: An Introduction.” Ethnomusicology 48, no. 1 (2004): 52–72.

Umezinwa, Cletus C. “The Apostolate of the Igbo Church Musicians.” African Research Review 9, no. 3 (2015): 125–138.


Yoruba Christian Music

Brennan, Vicki. “Take Control: The Labor of Immediacy in Yoruba Christian Music: Take Control.” Journal of Popular Music Studies 24, no. 4 (2012): 411–429.

———. “‘Truly We Have a Good Heritage’: Musical Mediations in a Yoruba Christian Diaspora.” Journal of Religion in Africa 42, no. 1 (2012): 3–25.

Ozah, Marie Agatha, and David Bolaji. “Towards an Authentic Nigeria Hymnody: The Study of Yoruba Hymnody.” East African Journal of Arts and Social Sciences 2, no. 1 (August 29, 2020): 67–72.