Old Advice in New Circumstances


Photo by “Thought Catolog” via Unsplash.

This post was written by Jonathan Diaz, a first-year PhD student in the English Department.

Friends, writing is difficult under the best circumstances, and these are not the best circumstances. Covid-19 has changed the way we go about so many of our daily activities, and writing is definitely one of them, even if it’s easier to do while observing safety precautions than grabbing a meal with friends or gathering in class.

It’s occurred to me that one of the challenges of writing in less-than-ideal circumstances is that the advice that has worked for us in the past doesn’t seem to work anymore. You may have developed a strong set of writing skills during your academic career, only to find that they are no longer effective when you’re writing under greater stress or with less time in your day.

This doesn’t mean the advice was bad, but rather, that we need to learn to apply that advice more thoroughly. In order to help you navigate writing in the time of Corona, I’m going to discuss two pieces of writing advice you’ve probably heard before: read your prompt and make an outline. However, I’m going to look at ways that advice can be more useful to you than ever before.


While it can be easy to think of a prompt as just a starting point, it’s more accurate to think of it as a roadmap to a successful piece of writing. Many times, an instructor will give you much more than a single question to answer or a topic to explore. They might give you necessary context for the subject, remind you of core concepts, suggest resources, or point out errors you should avoid. They are describing everything you should know in order to craft an excellent assignment.

  • Look for Imperative Verbs

Helpfully, they will also frequently give you direct instructions. It’s worth taking note of any time your prompt begins a sentence with an imperative verb: a word that tells you to do something. Instructors often use words like “explain,” “demonstrate,” “establish,” and “explore” to signal tasks they would like you to accomplish in your piece of writing.

  • Notice Your Instructor’s Priorities

It may help to remember that the assignment prompt is itself a piece of writing, something that your instructor thought about, planned, and then committed to paper—or, more likely, pdf. In any event, they set out to communicate something to you, emphasizing their main ideas in many of the same ways you do. Maybe they used formal elements like underlining, bullet points, or text boxes. They might have devoted an entire paragraph to talk about formatting, or maybe they just referred you to a style guide. If you attend carefully to these decisions, you can see what is most important to your instructor; and, as a result, what should be important to you as you write.


Outlines are possibly the most widely used planning tool students use when approaching an assignment. It’s not hard to see why: outlines help you start thinking about your ideas and how they will fit together within a structure. Crucially, they can give you sense of how much information you will be able to fit within the set length of the assignment. They’re a great example of what’s often called prewriting: any work you do on a writing project before creating a draft.

  • Move Past Simple Descriptions

One weakness of some student outlines, however, is that they sometimes fail to give sufficient information about the future paper. Most outlines I’ve read use a single word or a short phrase to describe a section of the final piece. Now, this is often a great place to start. For example, you might be early in your planning process for a paper on the Second World War, and it might seem obvious to you that you’re going to want to talk about the attack on Pearl Harbor. In this situation, it makes perfect sense to simply title this section “Pearl Harbor.” However, your outline will be of greater use to you if you move past this stage. Think about what it is you want to say about this idea, and express that in a complete sentence.

  • Use Complete Sentences to Develop Your Claims

One way to figure this out will be to write a full sentence that describes the purpose of this paragraph, such as: “The attack on Pearl Harbor was the key event that brought the U.S. to join World War II.” This sentence not only clarifies the future paragraph’s purpose, but makes it easier to use the outline to actually start drafting your paragraph. When you write out a full sentence, you’re forcing yourself to work through your ideas, transforming the outline from a rough sketch of your structure into a tool you can use to move from planning your paper to drafting it.

We know writing, like most other things in your life, has probably become more difficult this year. It can easily feel like the old rules don’t apply anymore; but while that may be the case for the number of people that can safely fit in a room, it’s not always the case for writing. The skills you’ve developed as a writer over the years will still serve you well, though you may have to learn to apply them to more challenging tasks and unexpected circumstances. As you do so, the University Writing Center consultants are here to help, so please don’t hesitate to make an appointment!


Jonathan Diaz is a first-year Ph.D student studying religion, race, and class in American literature. Jonathan holds an M.F.A. in Poetry from the University of Notre Dame: his poems have appeared in publications such as American Literary Review, Latino Book Review, and The Cresset. Previously, he has taught writing courses at Biola University and the University of Southern California. Jonathan, his wife Abigail, and their dog Chavo are from Los Angeles.

Which type of UWC Appointment is Best for You?


This post was written by Maddie Wayland, a second year Master’s student in the English program.

With Zoom calls, hybrid classes, and masks, things are looking a little different this semester, and we understand there is a lot to keep track of! If you’re feeling overwhelmed, or a little bit like this…

…don’t despair! Although we’re not in our usual location in Moody Library and are instead fully online, the University Writing Center is still here to offer you an extra pair of eyes at any stage in your writing process.

Did you know that we offer two types of appointments? Both appointment types, e-tutoring and video conference, have their own perks, but they are also very different! Depending on your project type or stage in the writing process, one type of appointment might be more effective than the other. Keep reading to learn about each type and how to choose the one that is best for you!

Here’s the lowdown on each:

  1. E-TUTORING (Written Feedback) APPOINTMENTS:

A bit different from a face-to-face conference, an e-tutoring appointment involves the writer submitting their paper draft and prompt ahead of the appointment time using the UWC website. On the appointment intake form, the writer can also indicate certain questions or concerns they’d like the consultant to address in their feedback. The consultant will then read over the materials the writer has submitted and provide feedback in the following ways: one, in-text comments on the student’s draft and, two, a feedback form which summarizes all feedback and suggestions for revision. All of these materials are shared electronically, then, with the writer within 48 hours of the appointment time.

So, when should you choose an e-tutoring appointment?

E-tutoring feedback is generally reader focused, as there is minimal interaction between the reader (consultant) and the writer (client). This means that the consultant will focus on their expectations as a reader, and explore how the writing either met these expectations, or could meet them more effectively. In feedback from an e-tutoring session, the consultant will provide a reader reaction to the writing, as well as specific suggestions for revision. The consultant will still keep in mind the writer’s specific questions and concerns, too, and will address those as fully as possible!

E-tutoring appointments are great if you have specific concerns and questions that can guide the consultant’s feedback. They are also helpful for completed drafts that you would like an extra reader’s response on to guide you in revision.

What should you do to make an e-tutoring appointment? Here are the steps:

    1. Create appointment by visiting the Baylor UWC website and clicking on “Make an Appointment.”
    2. Select the “e-tutoring (written feedback)” option under the question “Meet online?”
    3. Fill out the rest of the intake form with your assignment details and questions/concerns.4. Attach your assignment prompt and a draft of your work.
      5. Wait to receive electronic feedback from your consultant!


This option offers you as similar an experience as possible to the usual face-to-face appointments offered in the Writing Center. If you’ve ever visited us before, you know how it goes! Video conferences are an opportunity to meet with a consultant via video chat and discuss your writing, at any stage from brainstorming to a final draft. Writers may upload their work ahead of time, and the writer and consultant will look at the work together during the appointment. The consultant and writer will often have a conversation about the writing and the assignment, discuss the concerns or questions the writer has specifically about their writing, and read the draft out loud together. By the end of the session, the pair will come up with some tangible next steps that the writer can work on after the session ends.

Here’s when a video conference would be a great choice:

Video conferences are generally writer focused, and will center around the writer’s needs and concerns. The consultant and writer will work together to tailor the session to meet those needs. And, here’s the key to a video conference session—it’s a conversation! Although video calls can be nerve-wracking, video conferences at the UWC are designed to offer a low-stakes environment. This is your opportunity to just have a conversation about writing ideas, challenges, and questions with another writer.

Although video conferences can be beneficial at all stages of writing, from brainstorming and topic choice to revisions and final drafts, there are certain situations where you might benefit more from choosing a video conference over an e-tutoring session. The conversation you can have during a video conference session would be especially helpful if you are writing in a new or unfamiliar genre, or if you have larger questions about organization, crafting a thesis and argument, or sorting through your thoughts!

Decided on a video conference session? Follow these steps to make your appointment:

    1. Create appointment by visiting the Baylor UWC website.
    2. Select the “video conference” option under the question “Meet online?”
    3. Fill out the rest of the intake form with your assignment details and questions/concerns.
    4. Attach your assignment prompt and a draft of your work. (If you’ll be working on your draft up until the appointment, you can always attach it later).
    5. Your consultant will likely contact you with information on how you will be meeting—either via the Baylor UWC website, or via Zoom. If you’re meeting some way besides the UWC website, your consultant will provide you with a link to the video conference.
    6. At your appointment time, either visit your appointment link provided by your consultant or visit the UWC website, click on your appointment, and click the big red button that says “Start or join online consultation.”
    7. Meet via video chat with your consultant!

After every session, both e-tutoring and video conference, your consultant will send you session notes that summarize what the goals of the session were, what you did during the session, and a plan for next steps to take in writing or revision.

If you receive feedback, revise, and still have questions or concerns, it’s a great idea to make another appointment (especially a video conference appointment), so you can talk through your remaining questions! No matter what writing project you’re working on, or what stage in the project you’re at, there’s a UWC session to help.


Author’s bio: Maddie Wayland is a second year Master’s student in the English program. She specializes in creative writing, specifically creative non-fiction, and is interested in literature incorporating topics of illness, medicine, and health studies. She also has a Bachelor’s degree in Biology as well as English. Originally from Upstate New York, in her free time you can find Maddie reading Jane Austen, playing with her miniature schnauzer puppy Lucy, and dreaming of NY autumn.