Publications

Schnitker, S. A., *Medenwaldt, J. M., & *Williams, E. G. (in press). Religiosity in adolescence. Current Opinion in Psychology.

*Lynch, B. L., *Hunt-Felke, T. J., *Ratchford, J. L., & Schnitker, S. A. (in press). Religious affiliation, self-stigma, and economic outcomes among the Quichua of Ecuador. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.

Abernethy, A. D., Currier, J. M., Schnitker, S. A., Witvliet, C. V. O., Root Luna, L. M., Foster, J. D., VanHarn, & Carter, J. (in press). Inpatient perspectives on the appropriateness of spiritually integrated interventions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice.

^*Ratchford, J. L., ^Schnitker, S. A., & *Reppas, P. (2020). The virtue of thrift: A person-centered conceptualization and measure development. Journal of Happiness Studies. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s1090 2-020-00235-7

Shubert, J. Houltberg, B., *Ratchford, J. L., & Schnitker, S. A. (2020). Examinations of change in inhibitory and initiatory self-control in the context of endurance running. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2020.1787553

Pawl, T., *Ratchford, J. L., & Schnitker, S. A. (2020). Growth in patience in Christian moral wisdom and contemporary positive psychology. Journal of Beliefs & Values. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/13617672.2020.1836897

Schnitker, S. A., *Ro, D., Foster, J. D., Abernethy, A. D., Currier, J. M., Witvliet, C. V. O., Root Luna, L. M., Putnam, K., VanHarn, K., & Carter, J. (2020). Patient patients: Increased patience associated with decreased depressive symptoms in psychiatric treatment. Journal of Positive Psychology, 15, 300-313. doi:10.1080/17439760.2019.1610482

Schnitker, S. A., *Gilbertson, M., Houltberg, B., Hardy, S. A., & *Fernandez, N. (2020). Transcendent motivations and virtue development in adolescent marathon runners. Journal of Personality, 88, 237-248. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12481

Schnitker, S. A., Houltberg, B., *Fernandez, N. A., & Shubert, J. (2020). Bidirectional Associations Across Time Between Entitativity, Positive Affect, Generosity, and Religiousness in Adolescents Training with a Religiously-Affiliated Charity Marathon Team. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, Article 686. doi:10.3390/ijerph17030686

Schnitker, S. A., Houltberg, B. J., *Ratchford, J. L., & Wang, K. T. (2020). Dual pathways from religiousness to the virtue of patience versus anxiety among elite athletes. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 12, 294-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rel0000289

Callaway, K., *Kawakami Gilbertson, M., & Schnitker, S. A. (2020). Not all transcendence is created equal: Distinguishing the ontological, phenomenological, and subjective beliefs about transcendence. Philosophical Psychology, 33, 479-510. https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2020.1743254

Schnitker, S. A., *Ratchford, J. L., & *Lorona, R. (2020). How can joy escape jingle-jangle? Virtue and telos conceptualizations as alternative approaches to the scientific study of joy. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 15, 44-48. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2019.1685572

Abernethy, A. D., Currier, J. M., Witvliet, C. V. O., Schnitker, S. A., Putman, K. M., Root Luna, L. M., Foster, J. D., *Spencer, A., *Jones, H., VanHarn, K., & Carter, J. (2020). Understanding the role of religious comfort and strain on depressive symptoms in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 12(3), 366–375. https://doi.org/10.1037/rel0000233

2019

Schnitker, S. A., *Gilbertson, M., Houltberg, B., Hardy, S. A., & *Fernandez, N. (2019). Transcendent motivations and virtue development in adolescent marathon runners. Journal of Personality. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/jopy.12481

Schnitker, S. A., Houltberg, B. J., *Ratchford, J. L., & Wang, K. T. (2019). Dual pathways from religiousness to the virtue of patience versus anxiety among elite athletes. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rel0000289

Schnitker, S. A., *Ratchford, J. L., & *Lorona, R. (2019). How can joy escape jingle-jangle? Virtue and telos conceptualizations as alternative approaches to the scientific study of joy. Journal of Positive Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2019.1685572

Schnitker, S. A., Ro, D., Foster, J. D., Abernethy, A. D., Currier, J. M., Witvliet, C. V. O., Root Luna, L. M., Putnam, K., VanHarn, K., & Carter, J. (2019). Patient patients: Increased patience associated with decreased depressive symptoms in psychiatric treatment. Journal of Positive Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/17439760.2019.1610482

*Shepherd, A. M., Schnitker, S. A., & *Greenway, T. S. (2019). Religious service attendance, moral foundations, God concept, and in-group giving: Testing moderated mediation. Review of Religious Research, 61, 301-322. doi:10.1007/s13644-019-00384-z

Abernethy, A. D., Currier, J. M., Witvliet, C. V. O., Schnitker, S. A., Putman, K. M., Root Luna, L. M., Foster, J. D., *Spencer, A., *Jones, H., VanHarn, K., & Carter, J. (2019). Understanding the role of religious comfort and strain on depressive symptoms in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/rel0000233

*Greenway, T. S., *Jin, J., *Shepherd, A. M., & Schnitker, S. A. (2019). Beyond the Liberal-Conservative binary: Generosity, religion, and a latent profile analysis of Moral Foundations Questionnaire responses from a Christian sample. American Behavioral Scientist, 63, 1938-1964. doi:10.1177/0002764219850867

^Schnitker, S. A., ^*Ratchford, J., Emmons, R. A., & Barrett, J. L. (2019). High goal conflict and low goal meaning are associated with an increased likelihood of subsequent religious transformation in adolescents. Journal of Research in Personality, 80, 38-42. doi:10.1111/jopy.12481

Currier, J. M., Foster, J. D., Witvliet, C. V. O., Abernethy, A. D., Root Luna, L. M., Schnitker, S. A., VanHarn, K., & Carter, J. (2019). Spiritual struggles and mental health outcomes in a spiritually integrated inpatient program. Journal of Affective Disorders, 249, 127-135.

^Schnitker, S. A., ^King, P. E., & Houltberg, B. J. (2019). Religion, spirituality, and thriving: Transcendent narrative, virtue, and telos. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 29, 276-290. doi:10.1111/jora.12443

Schnitker, S. A., & *Richardson, K. L. (2019). Framing gratitude journaling as prayer amplifies its hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, but not health, benefits. The Journal of Positive Psychology. 14, 427-439. doi:10.1080/17439760.2018.1460690

2018

*Greenway, T. S., Schnitker, S. A., & *Shepherd, A. M. (2018). Can prayer increase charitable giving? Examining the effects of intercessory prayer, moral intuitions, and theological orientation on generous behavior. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 28, 3-18. doi:10.1080/10508619.2017.1406790

*Shepherd, A. M., Schnitker, S. A., Leffel, G. M., Oaks-Mueller, R. A., Curlin, F. A., Yoon, J. D., & *Greenway, T. (2018). Developing the Good Physician: Spirituality affects the development of virtues and moral intuitions in medical students. Journal of Positive Psychology, 13, 143-154. doi:10.1080/17439760.2016.1269185

King, P. E., Barrett, J. L., *Greenway, T. S., Schnitker, S. A., & Furrow, J. L. (2018). Mind the gap: Evolutionary psychological perspectives on human thriving. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13, 336-345. doi:10.1080/17439760.2017.1291855

2017

Schnitker, S., Houltberg, B., Dyrness, W., & *Redmond, N. (2017). The virtue of patience, spirituality, and suffering: Integrating lessons from positive psychology, psychology of religion, and Christian theology. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 9, 264-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rel0000099

Schnitker, S., & Emmons, R.A. (2017). The psychology of virtue: Integrating Positive Psychology and the Psychology of Religion [Editorial introduction for special issue]. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 9, 239-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rel0000133

*Thomas, R. M., & Schnitker, S. A. (2017). Modeling the effects of within-person characteristic and goal-level attributes on personal project pursuit over time. Journal of Research in Personality, 69, 206-217. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.012

Schnitker, S. A., *Felke, T. J., *Fernandez, N. A., *Redmond, N., & *Blews, A. E.  (2017). Efficacy of self-control and patience interventions in adolescents. Applied Developmental Science, 3, 165-183. doi: 10.1080/10888691.2016.1178578

Currier, J., Foster, J., Abernethy, A., Witvliet, C. V. O., Root Luna, L., Putman, K., Schnitker, S., VanHarn, K., & Carter, J. (2017). God imagery and affective outcomes in a spiritually-integrative inpatient program. Psychiatry Research, 254, 317-322. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2017.05.003

Houltberg, B. J., Wang, K. T., & Schnitker, S. A. (2017). Religiousness and perceived God perfectionism among elite athletes. Journal of the Christian Society for Kinesiology, Leisure and Sport Studies, 4, 29-46.

2016 and earlier

*Fernandez, N. A., Schnitker, S. A., & Houltberg, B. (2016). Charitable sporting events as a context for building adolescent generosity: Examining the role of religiousness and spirituality. Religions, 7, 35-47. doi:10.3390/rel7030035

*Strenger, A. M., Schnitker, S. A., & *Felke, T. J. (2016). Attachment to God moderates the relation between sociocultural pressure and disordered eating behaviors as mediated by emotional eating. Mental Health, Religion, and Culture, 19, 23-36. doi:10.1080/13674676.2015.1086324.

Schnitker, S. A., *Felke, T. J., Barrett, J. L., & Emmons, R. A. (2014). Longitudinal study of religious and spiritual transformation in adolescents attending Young Life summer camp: Assessing the epistemic, intrapsychic, and moral sociability functions of conversion. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6, 83-93. doi:10.1037/a0035359

Schnitker, S. A., *Felke, T. J., Barrett, J. L., & Emmons, R. A. (2014). Virtue development following spiritual transformation in adolescents attending evangelistic summer camp. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 33, 22-35.

Schnitker, S. A., & Emmons, R. A. (2013). Spiritual striving and seeking the sacred: Religion as meaningful goal-directed behavior. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 23, 315-324. doi:10.1080/10508619.2013.795822

Schnitker, S. A. (2012). An examination of patience and well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 7, 263-280. doi:10.1080/17439760.2012.697185

Schnitker, S. A., Porter, T., Emmons, R. A., & Barrett, J. L. (2012). Attachment predicts adolescent conversions at Young Life religious summer camps. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 22, 198-215. doi: 10.1080/10508619.2012.670024

Barrett, J. L., Porter, T., Emmons, R. A., & Schnitker, S. A. (2009). Different styles reach different kids: An empirical enquiry into Young Life camping outreach programs in the USA and Europe. Journal of Youth and Theology, 8, 10-27. doi:10.1163/24055093-90000002

Schnitker, S. A., & Emmons, R. A. (2007). Patience as a virtue: Religious and psychological perspectives. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 18, 177-207. doi:10.1163/ej.9789004158511.i-301.69

 

EDITED CHAPTERS AND OTHER SCHOLARLY PUBLICATIONS

Schnitker, S. A., & Emmons, R. A. (in press). Personality and religion. In O. P. John & R. W. Robins (Eds.), Handbook of Personality (4rd Ed, pp.xxx-xxx). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

King, P. E., Schnitker, S. A., & Houltberg, B. (2020). Religious groups and institutions as a context for moral development. In L. A. Jensen (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Moral Development (pp.xxx-xxx). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Sherman, M. D., Schnitker, S. A., Doering., A. C., & Slattengren, A. H. (2020). Ten tips for cultivate patience during uncertain times.  Family Practice Management, 27(4), 43-44.

2019

*Gilbertson, M. K., Schnitker, S. A., & Carter, E. R. (2019). Virtue interventions and interracial interactions. In L. Van Zyl and I. Rothmann (Eds.), Theoretical Approaches to Multi-cultural Positive Psychological Interventions (pp. 229-259). Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature.

2014 and earlier

Schnitker, S. A., *Blews, A. E., & *Foss, J. A. (2014). Patience and self-renewal. In E. A. Maynard and R. J. Wicks (Eds.), Clinician’s Guide to Self-Renewal: Essential Advice from the Field (pp. 205-227). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Schnitker, S. A., & *Westbrook, J. T. (2014). Do good things come to those who wait? Patience interventions to improve well-being. In A. C. Parks and S. M. Schueller (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Positive Psychological Interventions (pp. 155-167). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Emmons, R. A., & Schnitker, S. A. (2013). Gods and goals: Religion and purposeful action. In R. F. Paloutzian and C. L. Park (Eds.), The Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality (2nd Edition, pp. 256-273). New York: The Guilford Press.

Schnitker, S. A., & Emmons, R. A. (2013). Positive psychology and religion. In A. L. C. Runehov, L. Oviedo, & N. P. Azari (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions (pp. 1807-1814). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

Noftle, E. E., Schnitker, S. A., & Robins, R. W. (2011). Character and personality: Connections between positive psychology and personality psychology. In K. M. Sheldon, T. B. Kashdan, & M. F. Steger (Eds.), Designing the Future of Positive Psychology: Taking Stock and Moving Forward (pp. 207-227). New York, New York: Oxford University Press.

Emmons, R. A., Barrett, J. L., & Schnitker, S. A. (2008).  Personality and the capacity for religious and spiritual experience. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of Personality (3rd Ed, pp.634-653). New York: The Guilford Press.

MAGAZINE ARTICLES AND BOOK REVIEWS

Schnitker, S. A. (2018). Cultivating patience: Digging deeper with Margaret Whipp [Review of the book, The grace of waiting: Learning patience and embracing its gifts]. Modern Believing, 59, 262-263.

Schnitker, S. A. (2016, October 24). A journey of science, sickness, and growth [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://community.jewelneverbroken.com/never-broken-a-journey-of-science-sickness-and-growth-by-sarah-a-schnitker-ph-d/

Schnitker, S. A., & Houltberg, B. J. (2016). Building virtues in youth: A developmental take on spiritual formation. Fuller, 5, 68-73.

Schnitker, S. A. (2014, June). The happiest place on earth? The Table, 3, 8. Retrieved from https://cct.biola.edu/happiest-place-earth/

Schnitker, S. A. (2008). The how of happiness [Review of the book The how of happiness: The scientific approach to getting the life you want]. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 215-217.

MANUSCRIPTS UNDER REVIEW

Abernethy, A. D., Witvliet, C. V. O., Root Luna, L. M., Foster, J. D., Putman, K. M., Currier, J. M., Schnitker, S. A., VanHarn, & Carter, J. Religious comfort as a mediator in the relationship between divine forgiveness and depression in psychiatric inpatients: A mixed methods study. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Lavelock, C. R., Worthington, E. L., Griffin, B. J., Cairo, A. H., & Schnitker, S. A. (under review). Good things come to those who (peacefully) wait. Manuscript submitted for publication.

*Gilbertson, M. K., Brady, S., Schnitker, S. A., *Ablorh, T., & Logel, C. (under review). A time of transition: Closeness to God, spiritual struggles, belonging, and student outcomes during the transition to residential four-year colleges. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Williams, A., Houltberg, B., *Brown, S., *Falco, R., & Schnitker, S. A. (under review). Humanitarian athletic participation and identity work. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Schnitker, S. A., Callaway, K., & *Gilbertson, M. K. (under review). Positive youth development and technology: Developing character in youth in the present technological landscape. Manuscript submitted for publication.

* indicates student co-author, ^ indicates co-first-author